This week’s newsletter describes a proposal for new vault-specific opcodes and includes our regular sections with summaries of interesting updates to clients and services, announcements of new releases and release candidates, and descriptions of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure software.


  • Proposal for new vault-specific opcodes: James O’Beirne posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list a proposal for a soft fork to add two new opcodes, OP_VAULT and OP_UNVAULT.

    • OP_VAULT would accept three parameters: a commitment to a highly trusted spending path, a delay period, and a commitment to a less trusted spending path.

    • OP_UNVAULT would also accept three parameters. When used for the vaults O’Beirne envisions, these would be the same commitment to a highly trusted spending path, the same delay period, and a commitment to one or more outputs to include in a later transaction.

    To create a vault, Alice chooses a highly trusted spending path, such as a multisig requiring she access several separate signing devices or cold wallets stored in separate locations. She also chooses a less trusted spending path, such as a single signature from her regular hot wallet. Finally, she chooses a delay period specified using the same data type as BIP68, which allows specifying times as short as a few minutes up to about a year. With her parameters selected, Alice creates a normal Bitcoin address for receiving funds to her vault, with that address committing to a script using OP_VAULT.

    To spend funds previously received to her vault address, Alice would start by determining the outputs she ultimately wanted to pay (e.g. send a payment to Bob and return any change back to her vault). In typical usage, Alice would fulfill the conditions of her less trusted spending path, such as providing a signature from her hot wallet, to create a transaction that pays all the vaulted funds to a single output. That output contains OP_UNVAULT with the same parameters for the highly trusted spending path and delay. The third parameter is a commitment to the outputs Alice ultimately wants to pay. Alice finishes constructing the transaction—including attaching fees using fee sponsorship, a type of anchor output, or another mechanism.

    Alice broadcasts her transaction and it is later included in a block. This allows anyone to observe that an unvaulting attempt is in progress. Alice’s software detects that this is a spend of her vaulted funds and verifies that the third parameter of the OP_UNVAULT output of the confirmed transaction matches exactly the commitment Alice created earlier. Assuming it matches, Alice now waits for the delay period to complete, after which Alice can broadcast a transaction that spends from the OP_UNVAULT UTXO to the outputs she committed to earlier (e.g. Bob and a change output). This would be a successful spend of Alice’s funds using her less trusted path, e.g. using just her hot wallet.

    However, imagine that Alice’s software sees the confirmed unvaulting attempt and doesn’t recognize it. In this case, her software has the opportunity during the delay period to freeze the funds. It creates a transaction spending the OP_UNVAULT output to the highly trusted address which was the subject of the previous commitments. As long as this freezing transaction confirms before the delay period ends, Alice’s funds are secured against the compromise of her less trusted spending path. After the funds have been transferred to Alice’s highly trusted spending path, Alice can spend them at any time by satisfying the conditions of that path (e.g. using her cold wallets).

    Beyond proposing the new opcodes, O’Beirne also describes the motivation for vaults and analyzes other vault proposals, including those that are available on Bitcoin now using presigned transactions and those that would depend on other soft fork covenant proposals. Several described advantages of the OP_VAULT proposal include:

    • Smaller witnesses: flexible covenant proposals, such as those using the proposed OP_CHECKSIGFROMSTACK, would require that transaction witnesses for unvaulting transactions include copies of a significant amount of the data included elsewhere in the transaction, bloating the size and fee cost of those transactions. OP_VAULT requires much less script and witness data to be included onchain.

    • Fewer steps for spending: less flexible covenant proposals and vaults available today based on presigned transactions require withdrawing funds to a predetermined address before they can be sent to an ultimate destination. Such proposals also generally require that each received output be spent in a separate transaction from other received outputs, preventing the use of payment batching. This increases the number of transactions involved, which also bloats the size and cost of spending.

      OP_VAULT requires fewer transactions when spending a single output in typical cases and it also supports batching when spending or freezing multiple outputs, potentially saving a large amount of space and allowing vaults to receive many more transactions before their outputs would need to be consolidated for safety.

    In discussion of the idea, Greg Sanders proposed (as summarized by O’Beirne) a slightly different construction which “would allow all outputs in vault lifecycles to be P2TR, for example, which would conceal the operation of the vault—a very nice feature”.

    Separately, Anthony Towns notes that the proposal allows the vault user to freeze their funds at any time just by spending the funds to the address for the highly trusted spending path, allowing the user to unfreeze their funds later. This benefits the vault owner because they don’t need to access any specially-secured key material, such as a cold wallet, in order to block a theft attempt. However, any third party who learns the address can also freeze the user’s funds (although they’ll have to pay a transaction fee to do so), creating an inconvenience for the user. Given that many lightweight wallets disclose their addresses to third parties in order to locate their onchain transactions, vaults built on those wallets might unintentionally give third parties the ability to inconvenience vault users. Towns suggests an alternative construction for the freezing condition that would require providing an additional piece of non-private information in order to initiate a freezing, preserving the benefits of the scheme but also reducing the risk that a wallet would unnecessarily give third parties the ability to freeze funds and inconvenience the user. Towns also suggests a possible improvement in batching support and contemplates taproot support.

    Several replies also mentioned that OP_UNVAULT can provide many of the features of the OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY (CTV) proposal, including the benefits to DLCs previously described in Newsletter #185, although at greater onchain cost than directly using CTV.

    Discussion was still active as of this writing.

Changes to services and client software

In this monthly feature, we highlight interesting updates to Bitcoin wallets and services.

  • Kraken announces sending to taproot addresses: In a recent blog post, Kraken announced they support withdrawing (sending) to bech32m addresses.

  • Whirlpool coinjoin rust client library announced: The Samourai Whirlpool Client is a rust library for interacting with the Whirlpool coinjoin platform.

  • Ledger supports miniscript: Ledger’s Bitcoin firmware v2.1.0 release for its hardware signing devices supports miniscript, as announced previously.

  • Liana wallet released: The first version of the Liana wallet was announced. The wallet supports singlesig wallets with a timelocked recovery key. The project’s future plans include implementing taproot, multisig wallets, and time-decaying multisig features.

  • Electrum 4.3.3 released: Electrum 4.3.3 contains improvements for Lightning, PSBTs, hardware signers, and the build system.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • HWI 2.2.0 is a release of this application for allowing software wallets to interface with hardware signing devices. It adds support for P2TR keypath spends using the BitBox02 hardware signing device among other features and bug fixes.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, Core Lightning, Eclair, LDK, LND, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.