This week’s newsletter describes a vulnerability recently fixed in several LN implementations and summarizes a proposal providing multiple benefits for upgrading the LN protocol to take advantage of features in taproot. Also included are our regular sections with the summary of a recent Bitcoin Core PR Review Club meeting, information about preparing for taproot, listings of new software releases and release candidates, and descriptions of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure software.


  • LN spend to fees CVE: last week, Antoine Riard posted the announcement of CVEs for multiple programs to the Lightning-Dev mailing list. Bitcoin users have always been discouraged from creating uneconomical outputs that would cost a significant portion of their value to spend. However, LN allows users to send small amounts that would be uneconomical onchain. In those cases, the paying or routing node overpays the miner fee for the commitment transaction by the small amount, effectively donating the money to miners if the commitment transaction gets published (which, in most cases, shouldn’t happen).

    As reported by Riard, LN implementations allowed setting their uneconomical limit to 20% or more of a channel’s value, so five or fewer payments could spend all of a channel’s value to miner donations. Losing value to miners is a fundamental risk of the small-payments mechanism used in LN, but risking losing all of a channel’s value in just five payments was apparently considered excessive.

    Several mitigations are described in Riard’s email, including having LN nodes simply refuse to route payments that would risk donating more than a certain amount of their funds to miner fees. Implementing this may decrease the ability of nodes to simultaneously route more than a few small payments that are uneconomical onchain, although it’s unclear whether it will cause any problems in practice. All affected LN implementations tracked by Optech have released, or soon will release, a version implementing at least one of the proposed mitigations.

  • Multiple proposed LN improvements: Anthony Towns posted to the Lightning-Dev mailing list a detailed proposal, with some example code, describing how to reduce payment latency, improve backup resiliency, and allow receiving LN payments while signing keys are offline. The proposal provides some of the same benefits of eltoo but without requiring the SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT soft fork or any other consensus changes beyond the taproot soft fork that will activate at block height 709,632. As such, it could be deployed as soon as it was implemented and tested by LN developers. Looking at the major features:

    • Reduced payment latency: some details necessary to process a payment but not specific to the details of the payment can be exchanged by channel partners in advance, allowing a node to initiate or route a payment by simply sending the payment and a signature for the payment to the channel partner. No round-trip communication is required on the critical path, allowing payments to propagate across the network at close to the speed of the underlying links between LN nodes. Refunding a payment in case of failure would be slower, but not slower than before this change. This feature is an extension of ideas previously proposed by developer ZmnSCPxj (see Newsletter #152), who also wrote a related post this week based on some of his out of band discussions with Towns.

    • Improved backup resiliency: currently LN requires both channel parties and any watchtowers they use to store information about every prior state of the channel in case of attempted theft. Towns’s proposal uses deterministic derivation for most information about channel state and encodes a state number in each transaction to allow recovering the necessary information (with some small amount of brute force grinding required in some cases). This allows a node to backup all of the key-related information it needs at the time a channel is created. Any other required information should be obtainable from either the block chain (in case of a theft attempt) or from the channel partner (in the case a node loses its own data).

    • Receiving payments with an offline key: an online (hot) key is fundamentally required to send or route a payment in LN, but the current protocol also requires an online key in order to receive a payment. Based on an adaptation of ZmnSCPxj’s previously mentioned idea by Lloyd Fournier (also covered in Newsletter #152), it would be possible for a receiving node to only need to bring its keys online in order to open a channel, close a channel, or rebalance its channels. This could improve the security of merchant nodes.

    The proposal would also provide the better known privacy and efficiency advantages of upgrading LN to use taproot and PTLCs. The idea was well discussed on the mailing list, with discussion ongoing at the time of writing.

Bitcoin Core PR Review Club

In this monthly section, we summarize a recent Bitcoin Core PR Review Club meeting, highlighting some of the important questions and answers. Click on a question below to see a summary of the answer from the meeting.

Extract RBF logic into policy/rbf is a PR by Gloria Zhao to extract Bitcoin Core’s Replace By Fee logic into separate utility functions.

  • What is the high-level design goal for the mempool?

    The mempool aims to keep the most incentive-compatible transaction candidates for mining, even for non-mining nodes. However, there’s a fundamental conflict between DoS protection (e.g. not allowing people to use the P2P network to broadcast transactions that will never confirm), and miner incentives (maximizing joint fee of the top 1 block worth of the mempool). The design goal is to specify where that conflict occurs and attempt to minimize it 

  • What are the benefits of extracting the RBF logic into separate helper functions?

    Separating the logic into smaller functions allows better unit testing and for the logic to be re-used in the implementation of package mempool accept and package relay

  • In BIP125 Rule #2, why is it important for the replacement transaction to not introduce any new unconfirmed inputs?

    If the replacement is allowed to add new unconfirmed inputs, then even if the feerate increases, the ancestor feerate of the transaction can be decreased. Miners select transactions for inclusion in a block based on the ancestor feerate, so if we allowed new inputs to be added, a replacement transaction could be less attractive to mine than the transaction it is replacing. 

  • In BIP125 Rule #4, what does it mean for a transaction to “pay for its own bandwidth?” Why don’t we just allow any replacement as long as it has a higher feerate?

    “Paying for its own bandwidth” means paying a fee which includes an additional amount that would cover the minimum relay fee for the replacement transactions. Without this rule, malicious actors could repeatedly bump their transaction fee by 1 satoshi, and use a disproportionate amount of mempool compute resources and network bandwidth. 

  • Replace-by-fee logic is concerned with mempool policy. Why does this logic return that the replacement transaction failed due to consensus rules, not policy rules?

    This logic catches the case where the replacement transaction is spending a transaction that it is replacing. Since it’s impossible for both the original transaction and the replacement transaction to be confirmed, this replacement transaction can never appear in the block chain, and so is consensus invalid. 

Preparing for taproot #17: is cooperation always an option?

A weekly series about how developers and service providers can prepare for the upcoming activation of taproot at block height 709,632.

The original taproot proposal by Gregory Maxwell suggested an interesting principle for contract design:

“It is almost always the case that interesting scripts have a logical top level branch which allows satisfaction of the contract with nothing other than a signature by all parties. Other branches would only be used where some participant is failing to cooperate. More strongly stated, I believe that any contract with a fixed finite participant set upfront can be, and should be, represented as an OR between an N-of-N and whatever more complex contract you might want to represent.” (emphasis in original)

Since then, experts have debated the universality of this principle, with two possible exceptions we’re aware of being focused on timelocks:

  • Consensus augmented self-control: some people have used timelocks to prevent themselves from spending their own bitcoins for a period of time. The timelock requirement seems to suggest that more than a signature is required, but a few criticisms have been raised:

    • Someone truly desperate to spend their timelocked bitcoins can take out a loan, perhaps secured by some other asset. This undermines the utility of this self contract.

    • In addition to the consensus-enforced scriptpath timelock, the user can allow keypath spending between their key and the key of a third party who only signs when the timelock has expired. This is not only more efficient, but it also allows implementing a more flexible spending policy such as providing the user the ability to sell any forkcoins they receive or to work with a third party who will allow them to spend early in case of major life changes or price appreciations.

  • Vaults: as mentioned in Antoine Poinsot’s column here a few weeks ago, vaults also use timelocks extensively to help protect funds, which seems “contrary to the insight of taproot that most contracts have a happy path where all participants collaborate with a signature.” Others have argued that there’s no case where the vault user wouldn’t want an option to escape the vault’s conditions through a keypath spend, and that because it costs nothing to add a keypath option to a contract created for scriptpaths, it would be strictly superior to enable a keypath.

The argument against always providing a keypath option seems to be that there are cases even when all the signers acting together don’t trust themselves. They instead trust other people—the operators of economic full nodes who enforce Bitcoin’s consensus rules—to enforce restrictions on the signers spending ability which the signers are unwilling to enforce themselves.

The counterpoint is that, at least purely in theory, you can create a keypath spend between the regular signers and all those economic full node operators to obtain the same security. More practically, there’s probably some subset or alternative set of those node operators who can be added to your keypath multisig set who will enforce the policy you want, if they’re available (and, if they aren’t, you’ve lost nothing since you can still use the scriptpath spend).

Theory aside, we recommend taking some extra time to consider whether there’s an opportunity to use a keypath spend in a taproot-based contract even when it doesn’t seem like an option.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • Eclair 0.6.2 in a new release that includes a fix for the vulnerability described in the news section above as well new features and other bug fixes described in its release notes.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LND, Rust-Lightning, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core #20487 adds a -sandbox configuration option that can be used to enable an experimental system call (syscall) sandbox. When the sandbox is active, the kernel will terminate Bitcoin Core if it makes any syscalls other than those on a per-process allowlist. The mode is currently only available on x86_64 and is mainly meant for testing what syscalls are being used by particular threads.

  • Bitcoin Core #17211 updates the wallet’s fundrawtransaction, walletcreatefundedpsbt and send RPC methods to allow transactions where not all of the outputs being spent by the transaction are owned by the wallet.

    Previously, the wallet was not able to estimate the fee required for spending outputs that it didn’t own, since it didn’t know the size of the input required to spend that output. This PR updates those RPC methods to accept a solving_data argument. By providing the public keys, serialized scriptPubKeys, or descriptors for the outputs being spent in the transaction, the wallet can estimate the size of the inputs required to spend those outputs (and therefore the fee required to spend the outputs).

  • Bitcoin Core #22340 After a block is mined, it is broadcast to the p2p network, where it will eventually be relayed to all nodes on the network. Traditionally, there have been two methods to relay blocks: legacy relay and BIP152-style compact block relay.

    A node started with the -blocksonly setting does not accept relayed transactions from public nodes to reduce its bandwidth usage, and so usually has an empty mempool. Therefore, compact blocks are not beneficial to such a node since it will always have to download full blocks. However, in both high- and low-bandwidth mode, the cmpctblock message is relayed, representing a bandwidth overhead for blocks-only nodes because the cmpctblock message is several times larger than in average case than the equivalent headers or inv announcement.

    As described in newsletter #165, this PR makes blocks-only nodes use legacy relaying to download new blocks by preventing blocks-only nodes from initiating a high-bandwidth block relay connection and disabling the sending of sendcmpct(1). Additionally, a blocks-only node no longer requests a compact block using getdata(CMPCT).

  • Bitcoin Core #23123 removes the -rescan startup option. Users can instead use the rescan RPC.

  • Eclair #1980 will accept commitment transactions created with any feerate above the local full node’s dynamic minimum relay fee when anchor outputs are being used.

  • LND #5363 allows skipping the PSBT finalization step within LND, allowing PSBTs to be finalized and broadcast using other software. This can lead to funds loss if the transaction’s txid is accidentally changed, but it does allow alternative workflows.

  • LND #5642 will now keep an in-memory cache of the channel graph to speed up pathfinding operations. Previously, pathfinding required expensive database queries which were over 10x slower according to the PR author’s measurements.

    Users running LND on low-memory systems can reduce the memory footprint of this new cache by using the routing.strictgraphpruning=true flag to more aggressively remove zombie channels.

  • LND #5770 provides more information to LND’s subsystems about uneconomical outputs in order to allow implementing mitigations for the LN CVE described in the news section above.