This week’s newsletter describes an implementation of ephemeral anchors and includes our regular sections with the summary of a Bitcoin Core PR Review Club meeting, announcements of new releases and release candidates, and descriptions of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects.


  • Ephemeral anchors implementation: Greg Sanders posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list that he’s implemented his idea for ephemeral anchors (see Newsletter #223). Anchor outputs are an existing technique made available by Bitcoin Core CPFP carve outs and used in the LN protocol to ensure that both parties involved in a contract can CPFP fee bump a transaction related to that contract. Anchor outputs have several downsides—some of them fundamental (see Newsletter #224)—but others that can be addressed.

    Ephemeral anchors build on the v3 transaction relay proposal to allow v3 transactions to include a zero-value output paying a script that is essentially OP_TRUE, which permits that transaction to be CPFP fee bumped by anyone on the network with a spendable UTXO. The fee-bumping child transaction can itself be RBF fee bumped by anyone else with a spendable UTXO. In combination with other parts of the v3 transaction relay proposal, it is hoped that this will eliminate all policy-based concerns about transaction pinning attacks against time-sensitive contract protocol transactions.

    Additionally, because anyone can fee bump a transaction containing an ephemeral output, it can be used for contract protocols involving more than two participants. The existing Bitcoin Core carve out rule only reliably works for two participants and previous attempts to increase it required an arbitrary upper limit on participants.

    Sanders’s implementation of ephemeral anchors makes it possible to begin testing the idea along with the other v3 transaction relay behaviors previously implemented by that proposal’s author.

Bitcoin Core PR Review Club

In this monthly section, we summarize a recent Bitcoin Core PR Review Club meeting, highlighting some of the important questions and answers. Click on a question below to see a summary of the answer from the meeting.

Bump unconfirmed ancestor transactions to target feerate is a PR by Xekyo (Murch) and glozow that improves the accuracy of the wallet’s fee calculation in the case that unconfirmed UTXOs are selected as inputs. Without the PR, the fee is set too low if the feerates of some unconfirmed transactions being used as inputs are lower than that of the transaction being constructed. The PR fixes this by adding enough fee to “expedite” such low-fee source transactions to the same feerate as targeted by the new transaction.

Note that even without this PR, the process of coin selection will try to avoid spending from low-feerate unconfirmed transactions. This PR will be beneficial in cases where this can’t be avoided.

Adjusting the fee to account for these ancestor transactions turns out to be similar to choosing which transactions to include in a block, so this PR adds a class called MiniMiner.

This PR review spanned two weeks.

  • What problem does this PR address?

    The wallet fee estimation doesn’t take into account that it may also need to pay for all unconfirmed ancestors with a lower feerate than the target. 

  • What does a transaction’s “cluster” consist of?

    The set of transactions consisting of itself and all “connected” transactions. This includes all of its ancestors and descendants, but also siblings and cousins, i.e. children of parents who may not be ancestors nor descendants of the given transaction. 

  • This PR introduces MiniMiner which duplicates some of the actual miner’s algorithms; would it have been better to unify these two implementations through refactoring?

    We only need to operate on a cluster and not the entire mempool, and don’t need to apply any of the checks that BlockAssembler does. It was also suggested to do this calculation without holding the mempool lock. We’d also need to change the block assembler to be tracking bump fees rather than building the block template; the amount of refactoring necessary was equivalent to rewriting. 

  • Why does the MiniMiner require an entire cluster? Why can’t it just use the union of each transaction’s ancestor sets?

    Some of the ancestors may already have been paid for by some of their other descendants; they don’t need to be bumped further. So we need to include these other descendants in our calculations. 

  • If transaction X has a higher ancestor feerate than independent transaction Y, is it possible for a miner to prioritize Y over X (that is, mine Y before X)?

    Yes. If some of Y’s low-feerate ancestors have other decendants that are high feerate, Y doesn’t need to “pay” for those ancestors. Y’s ancestor set is updated to exclude those transactions, which has the effect of increasing Y’s ancestor feerate. 

  • Can CalculateBumpFees() overestimate, underestimate, both, or neither? By how much?

    It will overestimate if two outputs with overlapping ancestry are chosen, since each bumps its ancestors independently (without taking the shared ancestry into account). The participants concluded that it’s not possible for bump fees to be underestimated. 

  • The MiniMiner is given a list of UTXOs (outpoints) that the wallet might be interested in spending. Given an outpoint, what are its five possible states?

    It could be (1) confirmed and unspent, (2) confirmed but already being spent by an existing transaction in the mempool, (3) unconfirmed (in the mempool) and unspent, (4) unconfirmed but already spent by an existing transaction in the mempool, or (5) it could be an outpoint that we’ve never heard of. 

  • What approach is taken in the “Bump unconfirmed parent txs to target feerate” commit?

    This commit is the main behavior change of the PR. We use the MiniMiner to calculate the bump fees (the fees needed to bump their respective ancestries to the target feerate) of each UTXO and deduct those from their effective values. Then we run coin selection as before. 

  • How does the PR handle spending unconfirmed UTXOs with overlapping ancestry?

    After coin selection, we run a variant of the MiniMiner algorithm on the result of each coin selection run to get an exact bump fee. If we have over-bumped due to shared ancestry, we can reduce the fees by increasing the change value if it exists, or adding a change output if it doesn’t exist. 

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • BTCPay Server 1.7.1 is the latest release of the most widely used self-hosted payment processing software for Bitcoin.

  • Core Lightning 22.11 is the next major version of CLN. It’s also the first release to use a new version numbering scheme.1 Included are several new features, including a new plugin manager, and multiple bug fixes.

  • LND 0.15.5-beta is a maintenance release of LND. It contains only minor bug fixes according to its release notes.

  • BDK 0.25.0 is a new release for this library for building wallets.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, Core Lightning, Eclair, LDK, LND, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core #19762 updates the RPC (and, by extension, bitcoin-cli) interface to allow named and positional arguments to be used together. This change makes it more convenient to use named parameter values without having to name every one. The PR description provides examples demonstrating the increased convenience of this approach as well as a handy shell alias for frequent users of bitcoin-cli.

  • Core Lightning #5722 adds documentation about how to use the GRPC interface plugin.

  • Eclair #2513 updates how it uses the Bitcoin Core wallet to ensure it always sends change to P2WPKH outputs. This is the result of Bitcoin Core #23789 (see Newsletter #181) where the project addressed a privacy concern for adopters of new output types (e.g. taproot). Previously, a user who set their wallet default address type to taproot would also create taproot change outputs when they paid someone. If they paid someone who didn’t use taproot, it was easy for third parties to determine which output was the payment (the non-taproot output) and which was the change output (the taproot output). After the change to Bitcoin Core, it would default to trying to use the same type of change output as the paid output, e.g. a payment to a native segwit output would also result in a native segwit change output.

    However, the LN protocol requires certain output types. For example, a P2PKH output can’t be used to open an LN channel. For that reason, users of Eclair with Bitcoin Core need to ensure they don’t generate change outputs of an LN-incompatible type.

  • Rust Bitcoin #1415 begins using the Kani Rust Verifier to prove some properties of Rust Bitcoin’s code. This complements other continuous integration tests performed on the code, such as fuzzing.

  • BTCPay Server #4238 adds an invoice refund endpoint to BTCPay’s Greenfield API, a more recent API different from the original BitPay-inspired API.


  1. Previous editions of this newsletter claimed Core Lightning used the semantic versioning scheme and new versions would continue using that scheme in the future. Rusty Russell has described why CLN can’t completely adhere to that scheme. We thank Matt Whitlock for notifying us about our previous error.