This week’s newsletter describes a new proposed OP_EVICT opcode and includes our regular sections with summaries of new releases and release candidates and notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure software.


  • Proposed opcode to simplify shared UTXO ownership: developer ZmnSCPxj posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list a proposal for an OP_EVICT opcode as an alternative to the previously proposed OP_TAPLEAF_UPDATE_VERIFY (TLUV) opcode. Like TLUV, OP_EVICT is focused on use cases where more than two users share ownership of a single UTXO, such as joinpools, channel factories, and certain covenants. To understand how OP_EVICT works, imagine a joinpool where a single UTXO is controlled by four users: Alice, Bob, Carol, and Dan.

    Today, these four users can create a P2TR (taproot) output whose keypath spend allows them to use a protocol like MuSig2 to efficiently spend that output if they all participate in creating a signature. But, if user Dan becomes unavailable or malicious, the only way for Alice, Bob, and Carol to maintain the privacy and efficiency advantages of remaining part of the joinpool is to have prepared in advance with Dan a tree of presigned transactions—not all of which need to be used, but all of which need to be ready to use to ensure complete fault tolerance.

    Illustration of combinatorial blowup when using presigned
transactions to ensure trustless withdrawal from a

    As the number of users sharing a UTXO increases, the number of presigned transactions that need to be created increases combinatorially, making the arrangement highly unscalable (just ten users requires presigning over a million transactions). Other proposed opcodes such as TLUV and OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY can eliminate the combinatorial explosion. OP_EVICT accomplishes the same but ZmnSCPxj suggests it could be a superior option to those opcodes (for this usecase) because it uses less onchain data when removing members of the shared UTXO ownership group.

    If OP_EVICT were added in a soft fork, each member of the group could share a public key with the other members along with a signature for that key over an output paying the member the expected amount (e.g. 1 BTC for Alice, 2 BTC for Bob, etc). Once each member had the pubkeys and signatures for all other members, they could trustlessly construct an address allowing spending the funds in either of two different ways:

    1. Using the taproot keypath spend, as described above.
    2. Using a scriptpath spend for a tapscript using the OP_EVICT opcode

    In the case of evicting Dan, the opcode would accept the following parameters:

    • Shared pubkey: the shared pubkey of the whole group, which could be efficiently provided using a single byte reference to a template

    • Number of evictions: the number of joinpool exit outputs to create (one in this case)

    • Eviction outputs: for the one output to Dan in this example, the data would provide its index position and Dan’s signature for it. Dan’s public key would be the same key used in the output he signed

    • Unevicted signature: a signature for a public key corresponding to the shared public key of the whole group minus the public keys used in the eviction outputs. In other words, a signature from the remaining members of the group (Alice, Bob, and Carol in this example)

    This would allow Alice, Bob, and Carol to spend the group UTXO at any time without Dan’s cooperation by creating a transaction with the output Dan previously signed, providing Dan’s signature for that output, and providing a signature Alice, Bob, and Carol dynamically created over the entire spending transaction (which would cover the fees they chose to pay and allocate the remaining funds however they chose).

    OP_EVICT received a moderate amount of discussion on the mailing list as of this writing, with no major concerns noted but also roughly the same seemingly low level of enthusiasm which greeted the TLUV proposal last year.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • BTCPay Server 1.4.6 is this payment processing software’s latest release. Since the last release covered by Optech, support has been added for CPFP fee bumping, the ability to use additional features of LN URLs, plus multiple UI improvements.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LDK, LND, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.