OP_CODESEPARATOR is an opcode that changes what data is used when a signature commits to a script. The opcode has been available since the original version of Bitcoin Script, but its use and behavior have changed over time (with further changes having been proposed).

In Bitcoin 0.1, the scriptSig from a spend and the scriptPubKey of the output being spent were evaluated together with a virtual OP_CODESEPARATOR placed between them. For example, using a P2PK script:

<signature> OP_CODESEPARATOR <public key> OP_CHECKSIG

In legacy Bitcoin Script, such as the above example, OP_CODESEPARATOR removes itself and any preceding parts of a script from the scriptCode—which is part of the data that is hashed to create the message that is signed by a signature in Bitcoin. The above code separator allows the signature to only commit to the <pubkey> OP_CHECKSIG part of the script. Some operation of this type is required because the signature can’t commit to itself—although Bitcoin 0.1 also directly removed any signatures from the commitment using a function named FindAndDelete().

There’s speculation that the code separator was also part of an earlier Bitcoin design that could have allowed coin delegation. For example, Alice owns a coin but adds Bob to the set of people who can spend it—without Alice giving away her private key or creating an onchain transaction. Bob can then delegate further by adding Carol to the set of allowed spenders. No released version of Bitcoin supported this capability but source code claimed to be from a pre-release version of Bitcoin may have supported this capability.

In Bitcoin 0.3.7 (July 2010), one of the fixes related to the 1 OP_RETURN bug was deployed that changed how the scripts were evaluated, including discontinuing the use of the virtual OP_CODESEPARATOR. However, the opcode itself wasn’t changed and scripts have continued to be able to include it directly.

Later changes and proposals

The BIP143 signature verification rules for version 0 (v0) segwit that activated in August 2017 specified a slightly different version of OP_CODESEPARATOR. In legacy script, the FindAndDelete() operation is used to delete all code separators from the scriptCode. In segwit v0, the FindAndDelete() operation is no longer performed, so any OP_CODESEPARATOR opcodes that appear later in script than the most recently executed code separator will be included in the scriptCode. Otherwise, the opcode operates the same by deleting its calling OP_CODESEPARATOR and any preceding parts of the script from the scriptCode.

As of this writing, the proposed tapscript soft fork to implement v1 segwit script contains a further modified OP_CODESEPARATOR. In tapscript, signatures no longer commit to a computed scriptCode; instead they indirectly commit to the executed script through its leaf in the taproot merkle tree (called the tapleaf). This would render OP_CODESEPARATOR useless, so in tapscript signatures must instead commit to the position of the most recently executed OP_CODESEPARATOR (or 0xffffffff if none has been executed).

Also as of this writing, the proposed consensus cleanup soft fork specifies disabling the ability to use OP_CODESEPARATOR in legacy Bitcoin scripts. This would prevent it from being used to call the relatively slow FindAndDelete() operation an excessive number of times, a problem known to result in transactions and blocks that could take a long time to verify. This proposed change would make unspendable any money spent to a script using code separator, so this proposed change met with some criticism even though no one is known to be using legacy OP_CODESEPARATOR. It’s unclear whether or not this part of the proposal may be changed.

Additionally, Bitcoin Core 0.16.1 and later will not relay or mine any transaction that uses OP_CODESEPARATOR in a legacy script.

Primary code and documentation

Optech newsletter and website mentions



See also

Previous Topic:
Next Topic:
Output linking

Edit page
Report Issue