This week’s newsletter describes a new web-based tool for decoding and modifying PSBTs and links to a blog post and proof-of-concept implementation of an eltoo-based LN payment channel. Also included are our regular sections with information about preparing for taproot, announcements of new software release candidates, and summaries of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects.


  • Alekos Filini posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list about a website he and Daniela Brozzoni have created that decodes PSBTs into a human-readable listing of their fields. The contents of the fields can be edited and re-encoded back into a serialized PSBT, helping developers quickly create tests for their BIP174 implementations. Christopher Allen replied with a suggestion for the tool to also support creating QR codes (either standard QR codes or alternatives for handling PSBTs larger than 3 KB; see Newsletter #96).

  • Eltoo example channel: Richard Myers previously implemented an example of an eltoo channel using the Bitcoin Core integration tests based on AJ Towns’s implementation of SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT (see Newsletter #63). As mentioned on the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list, he’s now also written a detailed blog post describing the transactions an eltoo channel could use and which, combined with his integration tests, allows anyone interested in eltoo to begin experimenting with it. Several possible improvements to eltoo are also described for anyone interested in further research.

Preparing for taproot #11: LN with taproot

A weekly series about how developers and service providers can prepare for the upcoming activation of taproot at block height 709,632.

By ZmnSCPxj, LN protocol developer

In this post, we’ll look at two privacy features that taproot enables for LN:

  • PTLCs over LN.
  • P2TR Channels.


PTLCs enable many features, with a major feature for LN being payment decorrelation without any need to randomize routes.1 Every node along a single-path or multipath route can be given a scalar that is used to tweak each forwarded PTLC, enabling payment decorrelation where individual forwards no longer leak the unique identifier for each LN payment.

PTLCs are not a privacy panacea. If a surveillant node sees a forward with a particular timelock and value, and a second surveillant node shortly after sees a forward with a lower timelock and slightly lower value, then very likely those forwards belong to the same payment path, even if the surveillant nodes can no longer correlate them via a unique identifying hash. However, we do get:

  • Increased uncertainty in the analysis. The probabilities a surveillant can work with are now lower and thus their information is that much less valuable.
  • A lot more decorrelation in multipath payments. Separate paths will not have strong timelock and value correlation with each other, and if LN succeeds, there should be enough payments that timing correlation is not reliable either.
  • No increase in cost compared to an HTLC (and possibly even a slight cost reduction due to multisignature efficiency).

In principle, a pre-taproot channel can be upgraded to support PTLCs without closing and reopening the channel. Existing channels can host PTLCs by creating an offchain transaction that spends the existing non-taproot funding output to a taproot output containing a PTLC. That means adding support for PTLCs over LN does not require any cost to users beyond each node and its channel peers upgrading their software.

However, to actually use PTLCs, every forwarding node from the spender to the receiver must support PTLCs. This means PTLC support may remain largely unused until a sufficient number of nodes have upgraded. They don’t all necessary need to use the same protocol (there could be multiple PTLC protocols), but they all must support some PTLC protocol. Having to support multiple PTLC protocols would be an added maintenance burden and I hope we do not have too many such protocols (ideally just one).

P2TR Channels

One solution for improving the decorrelation between the base layer and the LN layer has been unpublished channels—channels whose existence isn’t gossiped on LN.

Unfortunately, every LN channel requires cooperation between two signers, and in the current pre-taproot Bitcoin, every 2-of-2 script is openly coded. LN is the most popular user of 2-of-2 multisignature, so any block chain explorer can show that this is a LN channel being closed. The funds can then be traced from there, and if they go to another P2WSH output, then that is likely to be another unpublished channel. Thus, even unpublished channels are identifiable onchain once they are closed, with some level of false positives.

Taproot, by using schnorr signatures, allows for n-of-n to look exactly the same as 1-of-1. With some work, even k-of-n will also look the same as 1-of-1 (and n-of-n). We can then propose a feature where an LN channel is backed by a P2TR UTXO, i.e. a P2TR channel, which increases the onchain privacy of unpublished channels.2

This (rather small) privacy boost also helps published channels as well. Published channels are only gossiped for as long as they are open, so somebody trying to look for published channels will not be able to learn about historical channels. If a surveillant wants to see every published channel, it has to store all that data itself and cannot rely on any kind of “archival” node.

In addition, taproot keypath spends are 38.5 vbytes (40%) smaller than LN’s existing P2WSH spends. Unfortunately, you cannot upgrade an existing pre-taproot channel to a P2TR channel. The existing channel uses the existing P2WSH 2-of-2 scheme and has to be closed in order to switch to a P2TR channel.

In theory, the actual funding transaction outpoint is only a concern of the two nodes that use the channel. Other nodes on the network will not care about what secures the channel between any two nodes. However, published channels are shared over the LN gossip network. When a node receives a gossiped published channel, it consults its own trusted Bitcoin full node, checking if the funding outpoint exists, and more importantly has the correct address. Checking the address helps ensure that it is difficult to spam the channel gossip mechanism; you need actual funds on the blockchain in order to send channel gossip. Thus, in practice, even P2TR channels require some amount of remote compatibility; otherwise, senders will ignore these channels for routing, as they cannot validate that those channels exist.

Time Frames

I think the best way to create time frames for features on a distributed FOSS project is to look at previous features and how long they took, and use those as the basis for how long features will take to actually deploy.3

The most recent new major feature that I believe is similar in scope to PTLCs over LN is dual-funding. Lisa Neigut created an initial proposal for a dual-funding protocol in BOLTs #524, with the first dual-funded channel on mainnet being opened almost 2 years and 6 months later. Dual-funding only requires compatibility with your direct peers. PTLCs over LN require compatibilty with all routing nodes on your selected paths, including the receiver, so I feel justified in giving this feature a +50% time modifier due to the added complication, for an estimate of 3 years and 9 months starting from when a specific PTLC protocol is proposed.

For P2TR channels, we should note that while this is “only” between two direct peers, it also has lower benefits. Thus, I expect it will be lower priority. Assuming most developers prioritize PTLC-over-LN, then I expect P2TR channels will start getting worked on by the time the underlying SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT or other ways to implement Decker-Russell-Osuntokun (“Eltoo”) are available.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • Bitcoin Core 22.0rc3 is a release candidate for the next major version of this full node implementation and its associated wallet and other software. Major changes in this new version include support for I2P connections, removal of support for version 2 Tor connections, and enhanced support for hardware wallets.

  • Bitcoin Core 0.21.2rc2 is a release candidate for a maintenance version of Bitcoin Core. It contains several bug fixes and small improvements.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LND, Rust-Lightning, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core GUI #384 adds a context menu option to copy the IP/Netmask of a peer in the Banned Peers Table. This helps GUI users share individual addresses from their ban list more easily.

    Screenshot of GUI Copy IP/Netmask Context Menu Option

  • C-Lightning #4674 adds datastore, deldatastore, and listdatastore commands for plugins to store and manage data in the C-Lightning database. Also included were manual pages detailing the semantics of each command.

  • LND #5410 allows nodes to establish direct connections to services not running behind Tor, bridging Tor-only and clearnet-only segments of the network.

  • LND #5621 includes the block header of the most-work block as part of the ignored field in ping messages. The peer node can use this information as an additional check that their view of the block chain is up to date and that they haven’t been eclipsed from the Bitcoin network. Future work could use this data source to alert the user or automatically take action to recover.


  1. A payer can choose a very twisty path (i.e. route randomization) to make HTLC correlation analysis wrong, but that has its own drawbacks:

    • Twisty paths are costlier and less reliable (more nodes have to be paid, and more nodes need to successfully forward in order for the payment to reach the destination).
    • Twisty paths are longer, meaning the payer is telling more nodes about the payment, making it more likely they will hit some surveillant node. Thus, twisty paths are not necessarily a perfect improvement in privacy.

  2. When considering unpublished channels, remember that it takes two to tango, and if an unpublished channel is closed, then one participant (say, an LN service provider) uses the remaining funds for a published channel, a blockchain explorer can guess that the source of the funds has some probability of having been an unpublished channel that was closed. 

  3. Yes, details matter, but they also do not: from a high enough vantage point, the unexpected hardships of some aspect of development and the unexpected non-hardships of other aspects of development cancel out, and we are left with every major feature being roughly around some average time frame. If we want to make accurate estimates as opposed to feel-good estimates, we should use methods that avoid the planning fallacy. Thus, we should just look for a similar previous completed feature, and deliberately ignore its details, only looking at how long the feature took to implement.