This week’s newsletter requests help testing a Bitcoin Core release candidate, summarizes continued discussion of LN anchor outputs, and describes a proposal for allowing full nodes and lightweight clients to signal support for IP address relay. Also included is our regular section about notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects.

Action items

  • Help test Bitcoin Core release candidate: experienced users are encouraged to help test the latest release candidates for the upcoming version of Bitcoin Core.


  • Continued discussion of LN anchor outputs: as described in last week’s newsletter, LN developers are working on allowing either party to a channel to CPFP fee bump settlement transactions, taking advantage of the CPFP carve-out mempool policy that’s expected to be released as part of Bitcoin Core 0.19.0. Topics discussed this week on both the mailing list and the BOLTs repository included:

    • Whether both the party unilaterally closing the channel (the “local” party) and the other party (“remote”) should experience the same delay before being able to claim their funds, or whether they should each be able to negotiate during the channel creation process for the delay duration to use when they’re the remote party. Currently, only the local party is delayed and there’s concern that this may result in some people trying to manipulate the other party to close the channel so that the manipulator will receive their funds faster.

    • What script to use for the anchor outputs. It was previously proposed that the script should contain a clause that allows anyone to spend it after a suitable delay in order to prevent polluting the UTXO set with many small-value outputs. However, this is complicated by the script possibly needing to contain a unique pubkey which won’t be known by third parties, preventing them from being able to independently generate the witness script necessary to spend the P2WSH output.

    • What amount of bitcoin value to use for the anchor outputs. The person who initiates channel opening is responsible for paying this amount (as they are responsible for paying all fees in the current protocol), so they would probably like to keep it low—but the amount must be greater than most node’s minimum output amount (“dust limit”). There was discussion about whether or not this should be a configurable amount.

    • Whether each LN payment should pay different public keys (using pubkey tweaking). Removing key tweaking was proposed to reduce the amount of state tracking necessary, but a concern was raised that this would make the channel state too deterministic. This could allow a watchtower that received a series of encrypted breach remedy transactions from one side of a channel to be able to decrypt not just the needed breach remedy transaction but all other breach remedy transactions from that channel—allowing the watchtower to reconstruct the amounts and hash locks used for each payment in that channel, significantly reducing privacy.

    Discussion remains ongoing as solutions to the above concerns are suggested and the proposal receives additional review.

  • Signaling support for address relay: full nodes share the IP addresses of other full nodes they’ve heard about with their peers using the P2P protocol’s addr (address) message, enabling fully decentralized peer discovery. SPV clients can also use this mechanism to learn about full nodes, although most clients currently use some form of centralized peer discovery and so addr messages sent to those clients are wasted bandwidth.

    Gleb Naumenko sent an email to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list suggesting that nodes and clients should signal to their peers whether or not they want to participate in address relay. This will avoid wasting bandwidth on clients that don’t want the addresses and can make it easier to determine the consequences of certain network behavior related to address relay.

    Two methods are proposed for allowing nodes to indicate whether or not they want to participate in address relay—a per-node method and a per-connection method. The per-node method could easily build on top of work already being done for addrv2 messages (see Newsletter #37), but it would be less flexible than the per-connection method. In particular, the per-connection method could allow a node to dedicate some connections to transaction relay and other connections to address relay, producing possible privacy advantages. Naumenko’s email requests feedback on which method would be preferred by implementers of both full nodes and lightweight clients.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LND, libsecp256k1, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core #16943 adds a generatetodescriptor RPC that allows new blocks generated during testing (e.g. in regtest mode) to pay a script represented by an output script descriptor. Prior to this change, only the generatetoaddress RPC was available and it can only pay P2PKH, P2SH, or P2WSH addresses.

  • C-Lightning #3220 begins always creating signatures with a low r value, reducing the maximum size of the signature by one byte and saving about 0.125 vbytes on average per C-Lightning peer in onchain transactions. Bitcoin Core also previously adopted this change to its wallet’s signature-generation code (see Newsletter #8).

  • LND #3558 synthesizes a unified policy for any case where two particular nodes have multiple channels open between them and then uses this unified policy when considering routing through any of those channels. BOLT4 recommends that multiple channels between the same nodes should all use the same policy, but this doesn’t always happen, so this change tries to determine “the greatest common denominator of all policies” between the nodes. Using a single policy reduces the number of routes the node needs to evaluate when making a payment.

  • LND #3556 adds a new queryprob RPC that returns the expected probability that a payment would succeed given a particular source node, destination node, and payment amount. This replaces functionality previously removed from the querymc RPC.

  • BOLTs #660 updates BOLT1 to reserve Type-Length-Value (TLV) type identifiers less than 216 for types defined in the LN specification (the BOLT documents). The remaining values may be used freely as custom records by any LN implementation. The updated specification also now provides guidance on how to select numbers for custom record types.