This week’s newsletter sees another slow news week but does contain our regular sections on bech32 sending support, selected questions and answers from the Bitcoin Stack Exchange, and notable changes in popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects.

Action items

None at the time of writing. Note: if the Bitcoin Core release team are satisfied that no blocking issues were found in the fourth release candidate distributed last week, they intend to tag the final release for version 0.18.0 around the time this newsletter is being published. If that happens, we’ll provide detailed release coverage in next week’s newsletter. But please don’t wait on us if you plan to upgrade—everything you need to know about the new version is explained in its release notes, which will be published with or linked to as part of the various release announcements on different platforms such as


None this week. We hope everyone is enjoying a lovely spring, fall, or dry season.

Bech32 sending support

Week 7 of 24. Until the second anniversary of the segwit soft fork lock-in on 24 August 2019, the Optech Newsletter will contain this weekly section that provides information to help developers and organizations implement bech32 sending support—the ability to pay native segwit addresses. This doesn’t require implementing segwit yourself, but it does allow the people you pay to access all of segwit’s multiple benefits.

It’s said that “imitation is the most sincere form of flattery.” In this week’s section, we take a quick look at a few other systems that are using variations on bech32. If you’re already going to need to implement something that’s basically bech32 for another project, it’s probably worth your time to implement it for Bitcoin too.

  • LN invoices use the bech32 format with an extended Human-Readable Part (HRP) and without bech32’s normal 90-character limit. See BOLT11 for the full specification. Example: lnbc2500u1pvjluezpp5qqqsyqcyq5rqwzqfqqqsyqcyq5rqwzqfqqqsyqcyq5rqwzqfqypqdq5xysxxatsyp3k7enxv4jsxqzpuaztrnwngzn3kdzw5hydlzf03qdgm2hdq27cqv3agm2awhz5se903vruatfhq77w3ls4evs3ch9zw97j25emudupq63nyw24cg27h2rspfj9srp

  • Bitcoin Cash new-style addresses use the bech32 format with the HRP bitcoincash and the separator :. Instead of the version byte encoding a segwit witness version, as in Bitcoin, it indicates whether the hash encoded by the address should be used with P2PKH or P2SH. See spec-cashaddr for the full specification. Example: bitcoincash:qpm2qsznhks23z7629mms6s4cwef74vcwvy22gdx6a

  • Backup seeds: In June 2018, Jonas Schnelli proposed Bech32X, a scheme to encode Bitcoin private keys, extended private keys (xprivs), and extended public keys (xpubs) using bech32 for error correction. See the full draft specification. Example: pk1lmll7u25wppjn5ghyhgm7kndgjwgphae8lez0gra436mj7ygaptggl447a4xh7

  • Elements-based sidechains: sidechains based on, such as Blockstream Liquid, use both bech32 address and a variation of them called “blech32” addresses. Blech32 addresses are intended for use with that platform’s confidential assets and will soon be supported by the Esplora block explorer for the Liquid sidechain. We’re unaware of a specification document for blech32, but this code is labeled as the reference implementation and is cited elsewhere in the project as, “See for compact difference from bech32.” Example of a blech32 address: lq1qqf8er278e6nyvuwtgf39e6ewvdcnjupn9a86rzpx655y5lhkt0walu3djf9cklkxd3ryld97hu8h3xepw7sh2rlu7q45dcew5

  • Output script descriptors: although less directly related to bech32, checksums based on the same Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes used in bech32 were added to the output script descriptors supported by Bitcoin Core. See Pieter Wuille’s detailed comment. Example: wpkh([f6bb4c63/0'/0'/28']02bf9d38386db60191f2f785cbf7ba90d01bed5958efb7b449a552b89da7550177)#efkksxw6

Selected Q&A from Bitcoin Stack Exchange

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is one of the first places Optech contributors look for answers to their questions—or when we have a few spare moments of time to help curious or confused users. In this monthly feature, we highlight some of the top voted questions and answers made since our last update.

  • “Do HTLCs work for micropayments?” David Harding and Gregory Maxwell both point out that there is risk in having an output with too small of an amount to be spent on-chain, while that payment is being routed. A micropayment of less than 546 satoshis would not be relayed by the Bitcoin network. The current mitigation is for LN to temporarily move such small payments to be a miner fee instead of an output, depending on the game theory that if an attacker cannot steal money, they won’t spend money to attack.

  • How was the dust limit of 546 satoshis was chosen? Why not 550 satoshis? The Bitcoin Core transaction relay policy sets a dust limit of 546 satoshis as the minimum amount for an output, which seems a peculiar amount. Raghav Sood describes how 546 is three times the minimum cost to create and spend a P2PKH output. A reference is made to a 2013 discussion.

  • History of transactions in Lighting Network. A LN beginner asks how the history of transactions conducted on LN for a user can be saved and how a payer receives a proof of payment. Mark H responds saying the LN wallet would need to save transaction history for a user and provides a nice explanation of how a payment hash provided to a payer results in a payment preimage reveal that serves as proof of payment.

  • How can my private key be revealed if I use the same nonce while generating the signature? Pieter Wuille provides a thorough answer that, if you’re familiar with the math used in public key cryptography, demonstrates how a private key is revealed in such circumstances.

  • Why do lightning invoices expire? Rene Pickhardt guesses that the primary reason would be a high volume recipient with relatively low storage capability could run out of storage or memory. An additional reason given is to provide some closure to proceed if a payment is not initiated or completed rather than leave it dangling. David Harding points out that traditional businesses put expiration dates on invoices to avoid an obligation to deliver goods in the future at a previously offered price.

  • Are there still miners or mining pools which refuse to implement SegWit? Mark Erhardt provides extensive analysis demonstrating that essentially the answer is “no.” Only 0.03% non-empty blocks from the past year had no SegWit transactions, and the two primary miners of those few blocks have demonstrated in 2019 that they’re mining blocks with SegWit transactions.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, LND, C-Lightning, Eclair, libsecp256k1, and Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs). Note: unless otherwise noted, all merges described for Bitcoin Core are to its master development branch; some may also be backported to its pending release.

  • Bitcoin Core #14039 causes Bitcoin Core to reject transactions submitted via RPC or received via the P2P network if they use the segwit-style extended transaction encoding when they don’t include any segwit inputs. The extended transaction encoding includes a segwit marker, a segwit flag, and witness data fields. Signatures included in legacy inputs don’t commit to these fields, so adding the fields to a transaction produces a (small) waste of bandwidth in a transaction consisting entirely of legacy inputs. For this reason, BIP144 specified that transactions which don’t need the extended format should use the legacy format. Previously Bitcoin Core accepted incorrectly formatted transactions and normalized them by stripping out unnecessary segwit-only parts before calculating their size (weight) or relaying them to other peers; now it will refuse to accept transactions that don’t use the appropriate format.

  • Bitcoin Core #15846 updates the node to accept transactions into its mempool for relay and mining if any outputs in the transaction pay segwit address versions 1 through 16—the versions reserved for future protocol upgrades. Previously, such transaction would be rejected. Any money sent to a future version address is not secure (any miner can spend it) until users enforce a soft fork giving that address special meaning, similar to the special meaning of segwit version 0 addresses for P2WPKH and P2WSH. That means no one should be using version 1+ addresses today. However, if anyone does create such an address and asks a segwit-supporting wallet or service to pay it, this change ensures that the transaction will be relayed and mined like any other transaction. (A future edition of this newsletter’s bech32 sending support section will go into more depth about the addresses for future segwit versions.)

  • Eclair #950 stops sending channel disabled updates each time a node disconnects, but instead only sends them if someone requests the node route a payment through a channel whose node is disconnected. This prevents notifying the network about channels nobody is actually trying to use. The PR makes several other minor changes to how the node handles network gossip with the aim to reduce unnecessary traffic.