This week’s newsletter summarizes a draft BIP for package relay and provides an overview of a concern with Miner Extractable Value (MEV) for Bitcoin covenant design. Also included are our regular sections with the summary of top questions and answers from the Bitcoin Stack Exchange, announcements of new releases and release candidates, and descriptions of notable changes to popular Bitcoin infrastructure software.


  • Package relay proposal: Gloria Zhao posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list a draft BIP for package relay. This is a feature that can make CPFP fee bumping much more reliable at ensuring a child transaction can contribute fees towards getting its parent confirmed. Several contract protocols, including LN, already require reliable CPFP fee bumping, so package relay would improve their security and usability. The draft BIP proposes to add four new messages to the Bitcoin P2P protocol:

    • sendpackages allows two peers to negotiate the package acceptance features they support.

    • getpckgtxns requests transactions that were previously announced as part of a package.

    • pckgtxns provides transactions that are part of a package.

    • pckginfo1 provides information about a package of transactions including the number of transactions, each transaction’s identifier (wtxid), the total size (weight) of the transactions, and the total fees of the transaction. The feerate of the package can be calculated by dividing fees by weight.

    Additionally the existing inv and getdata messages are updated with a new inventory (inv) type, MSG_PCKG1, which allows a node to tell its peers that it is willing to send a pckginfo1 message about a transaction and which those peers can then use to request that pckginfo1 message for a particular transaction.

    Using these messages, a node can use an inv(MSG_PCKG1) message to tell its peers that they might be interested in receiving a pckginfo1 about a transaction, e.g. because it is a high-feerate child of a low-feerate unconfirmed parent transaction the peers might otherwise ignore. If any peer requests the pckginfo1 message, they can use the info in the message to determine whether they really are interested in the package and to learn the wtxids of any transactions they need to download in order to validate the high feerate child. The actual transactions can be requested with a getpckgtxns message and received in a pckgtxins message.

    Although the draft BIP focuses on just the protocol, Zhao’s email provides additional context, briefly describes alternative designs that were found deficient, and links to a presentation with additional details.

  • Miner extractable value discussion: developer /dev/fd0 posted to the Bitcoin-Dev mailing list a summary of the ninth IRC meeting about OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY (CTV). Among other topics discussed during that meeting, Jeremy Rubin listed several concerns he’s heard people express about recursive covenants (which CTV does not enable). One of those concerns was creating Miner Extractable Value (MEV) significantly beyond the amount available from running a simple transaction selection algorithm such as that provided by Bitcoin Core.

    MEV has become a particular concern in Ethereum and related protocols where the use of public onchain trading protocols allows miners to frontrun trades. For example, imagine the following two unconfirmed transactions both being available to mine in the next block:

    • Alice sells asset x to Bob for 1 ETH
    • Bob sells x to Carol for 2 ETH (Bob earns 1 ETH in profit)

    If those two exchanges are conducted using a public onchain trading protocol, a miner can cut Bob out of the transaction. For example:

    • Alice sells asset x to Miner Mallory for 1 ETH
    • Miner Mallory sells x to Carol for 2 ETH (Mallory earns 1 ETH in profit; Bob earns nothing)

    Obviously this is a problem for Bob, but it also creates several problems for the network. The first problem is that miners need to find opportunities for MEV. That’s trivial in the simple example above, but more complex opportunities can only be found through computationally intensive algorithms. The amount of value that can be found by a certain amount of computation is independent of each miner’s hashrate, so two miners can join together to halve the amount of money they need to spend on computation for capturing MEV—producing an economy of scale that encourages centralization of mining and which can leave the network more vulnerable to transaction censorship. A report by BitMex Research claims that a centralized service that brokers these types of MEV transactions was being used by 90% of Ethereum hashrate at the time the report was written. To obtain the maximum returns, that service could be changed to discourage mining competing transactions, effectively giving it the power to censor transactions if it was used by 100% of miners (or if it was used by more than 50% of miners and allowed to engage in block chain reorganization).

    A second problem is that, even if Mallory does produce a block capturing the 1 ETH of MEV, any other miner can produce an alternative block capturing the MEV for themselves. This pressure to re-mine blocks exacerbates fee sniping pressure, which at its worst can make confirmation scores useless for determining transaction finality, eliminating the ability to use proof of work to secure the network.

    Bitcoin’s use of UTXOs rather than Ethereum-style accounts makes it harder to implement the types of protocols that are particularly vulnerable to MEV. However, in the CTV meeting, Jeremy Rubin noted that recursive covenants make it easier to implement account-based systems on top of Bitcoin UTXOs and so increase the chance that MEV will become a significant future concern for Bitcoin protocol design.

    Replying to /dev/fd0’s summary for the mailing list, developer ZmnSCPxj suggested that we only adopt mechanisms that encourage protocols designed for maximum onchain privacy. That privacy would deny miners the information necessary to perform MEV. As of the writing of this newsletter, no further comments had been received on the mailing list but, from mentions on Twitter and elsewhere, we see evidence that developers are increasingly considering the impact of MEV on Bitcoin protocol design.

Selected Q&A from Bitcoin Stack Exchange

Bitcoin Stack Exchange is one of the first places Optech contributors look for answers to their questions—or when we have a few spare moments to help curious or confused users. In this monthly feature, we highlight some of the top-voted questions and answers posted since our last update.

Releases and release candidates

New releases and release candidates for popular Bitcoin infrastructure projects. Please consider upgrading to new releases or helping to test release candidates.

  • Core Lightning 0.11.1 is a bug fix release that eliminates an issue causing unilateral channel close transactions to be broadcast unnecessarily and a separate issue that lead to the C-Lightning node crashing.

  • LND 0.15.0-beta.rc3 is a release candidate for the next major version of this popular LN node.

Notable code and documentation changes

Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, Core Lightning, Eclair, LDK, LND, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Rust Bitcoin, BTCPay Server, BDK, Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs.

  • Bitcoin Core #20799 removes support for version one compact block relay, which allowed faster and more bandwidth efficient relay of blocks and transactions to peers that didn’t support segwit. Version two remains enabled and allows fast and efficient relay to segwit-supporting peers.

  • LND #6529 adds a constrainmacaroon command that allows restricting the privileges of an already-created macaroon (authentication token). Previously, changing privileges required creating a new macaroon.

  • LND #6524 increases the version number of LND’s aezeed backup scheme from 0 to 1. This will indicate to future software recovering funds from an aezeed backup that they should scan for taproot outputs received to the wallet.

Special thanks

In addition to our regular newsletter contributors, we thank Jeremy Rubin in particular this week for providing additional detail about MEV. We remain solely responsible for any errors or omissions.